What are the differences among 【Investment casting】, 『Precision casting』, Lost wax casting〗, 〔Pressure castingand Die casting ?

People always get confused by these various terms! No worries, let me introduce them to you.

Actually, Investment casting is also called precision casting, sometimes referred as modern lost-wax casting, these three terms mean the same thing; and Pressure casting is also named Die casting, these two terms are interchangeable.

The main differences between Investment casting and Die casting are:

  • Almost any metal can be cast by Investment casting; while most of Die castings are made from non-ferrous metals.
  • The mold of investment casting is mainly formed by ceramic particles and wax; while the mold of Die casting is made from hardened tool steel.
  • The mold of investment casting is disposable; while the mold of Die casting is reusable, normally each mold is able to produce 100k pieces of the part.

Check the picture above, and the steps of investment casting are as following:

  1. Pattern creation – The wax patterns are typically injection molded into a metal die and are formed as one piece. Cores may be used to form any internal features on the pattern. Several of these patterns are attached to a central wax gating system (sprue, runners, and risers), to form a tree-like assembly. The gating system forms the channels through which the molten metal will flow to the mold cavity.
  2. Mold creation – This “pattern tree” is dipped into a slurry of fine ceramic particles, coated with more coarse particles, and then dried to form a ceramic shell around the patterns and gating system. This process is repeated until the shell is thick enough to withstand the molten metal it will encounter. The shell is then placed into an oven and the wax is melted out leaving a hollow ceramic shell that acts as a one-piece mold, hence the name “lost wax” casting.
  3. Pouring – The mold is preheated in a furnace to approximately 1000°C (1832°F) and the molten metal is poured from a ladle into the gating system of the mold, filling the mold cavity. Pouring is typically achieved manually under the force of gravity, but other methods such as vacuum or pressure are sometimes used.
  4. Cooling – After the mold has been filled, the molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify into the shape of the final casting. Cooling time depends on the thickness of the part, thickness of the mold, and the material used.
  5. Casting removal – After the molten metal has cooled, the mold can be broken and the casting removed. The ceramic mold is typically broken using water jets, but several other methods exist. Once removed, the parts are separated from the gating system by either sawing or cold breaking (using liquid nitrogen).
  6. Finishing – Often times, finishing operations such as grinding or sandblasting are used to smooth the part at the gates. Heat treatment is also sometimes used to harden the final part.